The sedentary lifestyle, irregular consumption of meals consisting mainly of industrial processed foods and stress are the causes of many civilization diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and gastrointestinal function disorders gastroesophageal reflux, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation to learn more about CBD Suppositories.
It is estimated that 10-28% of the general population suffers from chronic constipation (epidemiological data from the United Kingdom and the United States, no national data available). Because most of it is data obtained through questionnaire research, it seems that they may be underestimated, because most people consider constipation only for a reduced frequency of bowel movements. However, this problem is much more complex and concerns not only the minimum frequency of stool donation necessary to maintain good health. Currently, Roman criteria are used for the diagnosis of chronic constipation, which include:
- Heavy effort during> 25% defecation
- Hard or lumpy stool at> 25% of bowel movements
- Feeling incomplete emptying at> 25% of bowel movements
- Feeling of stool blocking in the rectum at> 25% of bowel movements
- Use of manual maneuvers to release stool from the rectum at> 25% of bowel movements
Below 3 defecations per week
To diagnose chronic constipation, two or more of these symptoms must occur for at least 12 weeks in the last 6 months, with no loose stools and no diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome. It should also be mentioned that the incidence of constipation increases with age and is higher in women than men regardless of age.
The main environmental risk factors for the development of chronic constipation are abnormal diet (low fiber supply and too low intake of fluids) and low physical activity. At the same time, these are the most important risk factors for the development of obesity, which is often accompanied by constipation. This is a significant impact on the increased incidence of constipation also have environmental factors such as low educational level and low income.
The risk of constipation also increases in people taking large amounts of medication. Constipation drugs include primarily: opioid analgesics (morphine, fentanyl), anticholinergics, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, nortriptyline), anticonvulsants (chlorpromazine, haloperidol) anticonvulsants used to treat Parkinson’s disease (amantadine), antacid preparations containing calcium or aluminum, iron preparations, diuretics (furosemide, torasemide), calcium channel blockers (verapamil, diltiazem), sympathomimetics (ephedrine, terbutaline), 5-HT3 serotonin receptor blockers (ondansetron, tropisetron), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen), contraceptives.
Etiopathogenesis of constipation
The etiological factors of constipation can be divided into:
- dependent on the patient (fully modifiable) – eating habits, physical activity, habits associated with defecation;
- Independent of the patient – hormonal and metabolic disorders, peripheral and central nervous system diseases, muscular damage and innervation of the intestine.
Another division of these factors includes:
- primary factors – associated with motor function and intestinal function;
- Secondary – parenteral.
Due to pathogenesis, simple constipation is characterized by rare or irregular bowel movements. These bowel movements can be painful, but they are not caused by secondary causes. Simple constipation usually occurs in young women who consume a small amount of fiber in their diet and have low physical activity. These people often also ignore the feeling of pressure on the stools, for example because of reluctance to defecate outside the home, and lead an irregular lifestyle, such as shift work, constant rush and stress (so-called habitual or psychological constipation).